Basic Rules of Layout and Components Wiring
There are some basic rules that should be followed when designing a layout. These include keeping the power and ground planes within the board, avoiding cross-netting, and placing the most critical components first. You should also try to place ICs and large processors inside the board. By following these rules, you should have no trouble designing and creating a circuit board.
Avoid crossing nets
When wiring components together, you must avoid crossing nets. If there are vias, make sure they are far enough apart to avoid cross-netting. Another way to avoid crossing nets is to place one IC’s positive pin ahead of the other IC’s negative pin. This way, you’ll avoid crossing nets on the PCB.
Place large processors and ICs inside your board
Microprocessors, ICs, and other large electronic components are the heart of most circuits. They are ubiquitous and can be found on nearly every circuit board. They can be simple devices with just a few transistors or complex devices with millions or even billions of transistors. There are many types of ICs available, including 8-bit microcontrollers, 64-bit microprocessors, and advanced packages.
Avoid placing vias on power and ground planes
Placing vias on power and ground planes creates voids, which can create hot spots in the circuit. For this reason, it is best to keep signal lines away from these planes. A general rule of thumb is to place vias 15 mils apart. In addition, when placing signal lines, ensure there are 1350 bends per via.
In a typical PCB power distribution system, power and ground planes are located on the outer layers. These layers are characterized by their low inductance and high capacitance. In high-speed digital systems, switching noise can result. To mitigate this, use thermal relief pads to make electrical connections.
Avoid placing vias on traces
When wiring components, it is important to avoid placing vias on traces. Vias are holes drilled in the board through which thin copper wires pass and are soldered on both sides. Ideally, vias should be placed at least one-eighth wavelength away from the traces. This practice will decrease the operating temperature of the IC and make the design more reliable.
Vias are very useful in moving signals from one layer to another. Unlike traces that run from layer to layer, they are also easy to identify if any design changes are needed. Vias are the jack-of-all-trades of a PCB layout, providing electrical connectivity between layers. Additionally, they serve as an effective tool in transferring heat from one side of the board to the other.