Solder Ball Issues of BGA Components and Their Remedies
Solder ball issues of BGA components are common problems that can lead to deterioration of the components. These problems are caused by solder ball delamination or oxidation. Fortunately, the remedies are simple and do not require any complex technical knowledge. These solutions will help you prevent further damage to your components.
Solder ball delamination
BGA components are prone to problems related to solder balls, commonly referred to as “head-in-pillow defects”. The problem occurs when two metal surfaces are mechanically connected, often by a solder ball. The amount of contact between the ball and solder varies depending on the soldering process and the heat and pressure applied to the parts. Several studies have been conducted to understand the cause of this defect and the remedies for preventing it.
A faulty BGA can have serious effects on the functionality of the product. A typical remedy is to replace the affected component with a new one. However, this solution can be problematic and expensive. The better alternative is to reball the BGA component. It requires a technician to remove the affected components and install new solder in the bare areas.
In order to prevent solder ball issues, it is important to use the correct test socket. There are two types of test sockets: claw-shaped sockets and needle-point sockets. The former causes the solder ball to expand and become deformed, while the latter causes bumping and abrasion to the solder ball.
Solder ball oxidation
Solder ball oxidation issues of BGA components are a growing problem in electronics manufacturing. These defects are caused by incomplete merging of BGA/CSP component solder spheres with molten solder paste during the solder reflow process. These defects affect both lead-free and tin-lead soldered assemblies. However, there are ways to mitigate these problems.
One way to avoid this problem is to use solder paste that is semi-liquid. This will ensure that the ball does not short-circuit when heated. To ensure a solid solder joint, the solder alloy used is carefully chosen. This alloy is also semi-liquid, allowing individual balls to remain separate from their neighboring balls.
Another way to prevent solder ball oxidation is to protect your BGA components during handling. When transporting or shipping, make sure that your BGA components are placed in a non-static foam pallet. This will delay the oxidation process of the solder balls and sockets.
Solder ball removal
Solder ball removal for BGA components is a critical process. If the solder ball is not properly removed, the BGA component can be damaged and result in a messy product. Luckily, there are several ways to remove the ball from BGA components. The first way is to use a vacuum to remove any residual solder. A second way is to use a water-soluble paste flux.
In many cases, the most cost-effective method is reballing. This process replaces lead-free solder balls with leaded ones. This method ensures that the BGA component retains its functionality. The process is much more efficient than replacing the entire board, especially if the component is regularly used.
Before starting the process, a technician should research BGA components. Before touching the device, he or she needs to assess the size and shape of the solder balls. Besides, he or she must determine the type of solder paste and stencil to use. Other factors to consider are the type of solder and the chemistry of the components.
Solder ball reballing
Solder ball reballing of BGA components is a process that involves reworking electronic assemblies. This process requires reflow soldering and a stencil. The stencil has holes for solder balls to fit into. To achieve the best results, the stencil is made from high-quality steel. The stencil can be heated with a hot air gun or a BGA machine. The stencil is necessary for the BGA reballing process and helps to ensure that the solder balls fit into their correct locations.
Before reballing a BGA component, it is important to prepare the PCB for the process. This will prevent damage to the components. First, the PCB is preheated. This will allow the solder balls to become molten. Next, the robotic de-ball system picks up a row of components from a matrix tray. It applies flux to the solder balls. It then runs through a programmed preheat stage. After that, a dynamic solder wave removes the unwanted balls from the board.
In many cases, reballing a BGA component is more economical than replacing the entire board. Replacing an entire board can be costly, especially if it is used in regularly-operating machinery. In such cases, reballing is the best option. By replacing the solder balls with new ones, the board can withstand higher temperatures, which improves board longevity.