What Are the Most Problems With SMT Footprint?
SMT footprint is widely used for implementing microcontrollers. However, there are several problems related to SMT. Here are the common ones: Insufficient solder, thermal imbalances, and misplacement of components. These problems can also be caused by faulty part name, library name, and footprint.
Misplacement of components
If a component is dropped rather than placed on a surface mount footprint, the result can be a faulty PCB. In this case, a modification is necessary to the design to ensure that all parts are visible from above. In such a case, AOI may be used to detect the fault before the reflow process begins.
A bad placement of SMT components can lead to poor performance and even board failure. It is very important to place parts according to the schematics in order to avoid these problems. It is also important to keep analog and digital components separated and allow for clear signal return paths on the reference plane.
SMT footprints can be a problem because they do not allow the proper amount of solder to reach the in-circuit test points. This can lead to poor solder joints, especially if the component is wave-solderable. However, this issue can be avoided by properly building the PCB footprint. To do this, it is important to remember to create the pads of the part to be large enough to contain solder paste. When the pads are too small, too much solder may flow over to another pad, causing bridging. This can be caused by improperly created pads or solder paste masks. It can also happen if the parts are placed too close together.
Another problem with smt footprints is the uneven amount of copper on both sides of the footprint. This can lead to component misplacement and thermal imbalance. In order to avoid this problem, PCBs should have a balanced copper distribution. It is also important to have the proper reflow profile to reduce delta T. This will also improve the surface finish of the PCB. The presence of moisture trapped within the component can also lead to thermal imbalances. Hence, PCBs should be stored in a humidity cabinet or pre-baked before use.
SMT footprint problems occur due to excess solder, which can flow into the wrong places during the soldering process. This can cause shorts or electrical problems. It also makes the solder look dull. Excess solder can also be caused by improper design, with pads and traces being too small or thin.
Often, SMT parts placed too close to in-circuit test points interfere with the ability of the test probes to make contact. Another common problem with SMT parts is that larger components may be placed in front of the smaller ones, causing shadowing. Designers should place smaller components in front of the larger components to avoid this problem.
Insufficient solder can cause poor strength and weak joints. Insufficient wetting can also lead to a metal oxide layer on the bonded object. Solder paste must be properly applied to both the pads and the pins to ensure that the joint will remain strong.
A problem with pad-to-pin mismatch in SMT footprint can lead to insufficient solder. This problem can cause a circuit board to be rejected from a manufacturer. There are several ways to avoid it. First, always use the right footprint library. It will help you select the right size of component pads. Secondly, keep in mind that the distance between the pad edge and the silkscreen must be the same.
Second, an incorrectly matched pad is likely to result in impedance mismatch. The problem can occur at a number of locations, including board-to-board connectors, AC coupling capacitors, and cable-to-board connectors.