How to Determine the Number of Layers in PCBs
Before deciding on the number of layers for a PCB, it is essential to identify the purpose for which the PCB will be used. This will affect the number of layers required, as will the complexity of the electronic circuit and the amount of power it will consume. Generally speaking, high-tech applications require a high number of layers.
Using the signal layer estimator
PCB layer count estimation is a crucial step in board manufacturing. The more layers a circuit board has, the more expensive it will be. More layers also require more production steps, materials, and time. Using the signal layer estimator will help you determine the right number of layers to use for your PCB. Then, you can adjust the board accordingly for an efficient design.
The signal layer is the first layer of a two-layer PCB stackup. The copper material used for layer one is 0.0014 inches thick. It weighs approximately one ounce. This layer’s effect will vary depending on the size of the boards.
Using the ground plane estimator
The number of layers required for a given design depends on the power levels and complexity of the circuits. More layers increase the cost of production, but they also allow for more tracks and components. Therefore, layer count estimation is an important step in the design process. Sierra Circuits has created a tool called the Signal Layer Estimator, which can help you determine the number of layers required for your PCBs.
PCB design is critical to the performance of your device. The design process must specify the number of layers for power, ground, routing, and special considerations. PCBs can have as many as four layers, and the signal layers must be close together. This arrangement reduces unwanted signals and keeps the opposition between currents and circuits within acceptable limits. The ideal range for this opposition is 50 to 60 ohms. Too low of an impedance and you could experience spikes in the drawn current. On the other hand, too high an impedance will generate more electromagnetic interference and expose the board to foreign interference.
Managing a good stackup
Managing a good stackup in PCBA design requires an understanding of the various demands on stackup. The three main demands are controlled impedance, crosstalk control, and interplane capacitance. Fabricators cannot account for the first two demands, because only the design engineer knows what they need.
The layers of a PCB must be stacked in such a way that they are compatible and can transmit signals. In addition, the layers must be coupled to each other. The signal layer must be adjacent to the power plane, mass plane, and ground plane. To achieve these objectives, the best mode is an 8-layer stackup, but you can customize this to suit the requirements of your design.
Good stackup can reduce crosstalk, which is energy that moves from one PCB trace to the next. There are two types of crosstalk: inductive and capacitive. Inductive crosstalk is dominated by return currents, which generate magnetic fields in the other traces.
Considering component keep-out or head-room restrictions
When determining the number of layers on your PCB, keep in mind any head-room or component keep-out restrictions that may apply. Head-room restrictions refer to areas on a board where the physical shape of the components are too close to the board or where the board is not large enough to accommodate a particular component. These are usually noted on the schematic. The type of components on the board and the overall layout will determine the number of layers.
Calculating microstrip and stripline impedance for high-speed signals
Using the same mathematical formula, we can calculate the impedance of both striplines and microstrips for high-speed signals. Unlike a stripline, a microstrip’s characteristic impedance is dependent on the width of its trace, not its height. As a result, the higher the frequency, the higher the microstrip’s characteristic impedance.
In circuit design, controlled-impedance lines are most often set up in a microstrip configuration. The edged-coupled microstrip configuration uses a differential pair on an external layer of the circuit board with a reference plane adjacent. The Embedded microstrip, on the other hand, utilizes additional dielectric materials such as Soldermask. In addition to this, stripline routing is commonly symmetrical.
The values of impedance are not always accurate because the circuits are influenced by a variety of factors and parameters. Incorrectly calculated values can lead to PCB design errors and can interfere with the operation of the circuit. In order to avoid such a situation, use an impedance calculator. It is a powerful tool to tackle impedance problems and to get accurate results.